The Brazilian Federal Constitution of 1988 states that the public security in Brazil is an obligation of the state and is carried out by different police officers. In its article Nº 144, the Magna Carta defines the competences of different policemen, declaring among others the preventive tasks of the military police, the Investigation of crimes of the Federal Police and civil rights, which is also known as Federal Judicial Police.
It is interesting to note that the police investigation is shaped through the informative piece and so-called preliminary police investigation, which subsidizes the legal process. After the completion of the police investigation, it is submitted to the judicial authority that can invoke the evidence provided during the criminal proceedings and the delivery of a criminal sentence.
In this context, the assistance of experts is of crucial importance in order to show the materiality and the authorship of the crime. As general rule, the expertise is practiced during the police phase because many of them, not less important, should be done immediately or shortly after the crime.
Juan Tomás Beneyto. Detective and Criminalist.